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What Makes Brain Fog So Unforgiving

On March 25, 2020, Hannah Davis was texting with two pals when she realized that she couldn’t perceive one in every of their messages. In hindsight, that was the primary signal that she had COVID-19. It was additionally her first expertise with the phenomenon referred to as “mind fog,” and the second when her outdated life contracted into her present one. She as soon as labored in synthetic intelligence and analyzed advanced programs with out hesitation, however now “runs right into a psychological wall” when confronted with duties so simple as filling out types. Her reminiscence, as soon as vivid, feels frayed and fleeting. Former mundanities—shopping for meals, making meals, cleansing up—may be agonizingly tough. Her interior world—what she calls “the extras of pondering, like daydreaming, planning, imagining”—is gone. The fog “is so encompassing,” she instructed me, “it impacts each space of my life.” For greater than 900 days, whereas different long-COVID signs have waxed and waned, her mind fog has by no means actually lifted.

Of lengthy COVID’s many attainable signs, mind fog “is by far one of the vital disabling and harmful,” Emma Ladds, a primary-care specialist from the College of Oxford, instructed me. It’s additionally among the many most misunderstood. It wasn’t even included within the listing of attainable COVID signs when the coronavirus pandemic first started. However 20 to 30 % of sufferers report mind fog three months after their preliminary an infection, as do 65 to 85 % of the long-haulers who keep sick for for much longer. It will probably afflict individuals who had been by no means ailing sufficient to want a ventilator—or any hospital care. And it could possibly have an effect on younger folks within the prime of their psychological lives.

Lengthy-haulers with mind fog say that it’s like not one of the issues that individuals—together with many medical professionals—jeeringly examine it to. It’s extra profound than the clouded pondering that accompanies hangovers, stress, or fatigue. It’s not ADHD, which Davis was as soon as identified with. It’s not psychosomatic, and entails actual adjustments to the construction and chemistry of the mind. It’s not a temper dysfunction: “If anybody is saying that this is because of melancholy and anxiousness, they don’t have any foundation for that, and information counsel it is perhaps the opposite route,” Joanna Hellmuth, a neurologist at UC San Francisco, instructed me.

And regardless of its nebulous identify, mind fog isn’t an umbrella time period for each attainable psychological drawback. At its core, Hellmuth mentioned, it’s nearly all the time a dysfunction of “govt perform”—the set of psychological talents that features focusing consideration, holding data in thoughts, and blocking out distractions. These expertise are so foundational that once they crumble, a lot of an individual’s cognitive edifice collapses. Something involving focus, multitasking, and planning—that’s, nearly the whole lot necessary—turns into absurdly arduous. “It raises what are unconscious processes for wholesome folks to the extent of acutely aware determination making,” Fiona Robertson, a author based mostly in Aberdeen, Scotland, instructed me.

For instance, Robertson’s mind usually loses focus mid-sentence, resulting in what she jokingly calls “so-yeah syndrome”: “I overlook what I’m saying, tail off, and go, ‘So, yeah …’” she mentioned. Mind fog stopped Kristen Tjaden from driving, as a result of she’d overlook her vacation spot en route. For greater than a yr, she couldn’t learn, both, as a result of making sense of a collection of phrases had turn into too tough. Angela Meriquez Vázquez instructed me it as soon as took her two hours to schedule a gathering over electronic mail: She’d verify her calendar, however the data would slip within the second it took to deliver up her inbox. At her worst, she couldn’t unload a dishwasher, as a result of figuring out an object, remembering the place it ought to go, and placing it there was too difficult.

Reminiscence suffers, too, however another way from degenerative circumstances like Alzheimer’s. The recollections are there, however with govt perform malfunctioning, the mind neither chooses the necessary issues to retailer nor retrieves that data effectively. Davis, who’s a part of the Affected person-Led Analysis Collaborative, can keep in mind details from scientific papers, however not occasions. When she thinks of her family members, or her outdated life, they really feel distant. “Moments that affected me don’t really feel like they’re a part of me anymore,” she mentioned. “It appears like I’m a void and I’m dwelling in a void.”

Most individuals with mind fog will not be so severely affected, and progressively enhance with time. However even when folks get better sufficient to work, they’ll wrestle with minds which might be much less nimble than earlier than. “We’re used to driving a sports activities automobile, and now we’re left with a jalopy,” Vázquez mentioned. In some professions, a jalopy gained’t minimize it. “I’ve had surgeons who can’t return to surgical procedure, as a result of they want their govt perform,” Monica Verduzco-Gutierrez, a rehabilitation specialist at UT Well being San Antonio, instructed me.

Robertson, in the meantime, was finding out theoretical physics in faculty when she first obtained sick, and her fog occluded a profession path that was as soon as brightly lit. “I used to glitter, like I might pull this stuff collectively and begin to see how the universe works,” she instructed me. “I’ve by no means been capable of entry that sensation once more, and I miss it, day-after-day, like an ache.” That lack of id was as disruptive because the bodily facets of the illness, which “I all the time thought I might cope with … if I might simply assume correctly,” Robertson mentioned. “That is the factor that’s destabilized me most.”


Robertson predicted that the pandemic would set off a wave of cognitive impairment in March 2020. Her mind fog started twenty years earlier, doubtless with a unique viral sickness, however she developed the identical executive-function impairments that long-haulers expertise, which then worsened when she obtained COVID final yr. That particular constellation of issues additionally befalls many individuals dwelling with HIV, epileptics after seizures, most cancers sufferers experiencing so-called chemo mind, and other people with a number of advanced persistent sicknesses similar to fibromyalgia. It’s a part of the diagnostic standards for myalgic encephalomyelitis, often known as persistent fatigue syndrome, or ME/CFS—a situation that Davis and plenty of different long-haulers now have. Mind fog existed effectively earlier than COVID, affecting many individuals whose circumstances had been stigmatized, dismissed, or uncared for. “For all of these years, folks simply handled it prefer it’s not value researching,” Robertson instructed me. “So many people had been instructed, Oh, it’s only a little bit of a melancholy.

A number of clinicians I spoke with argued that the time period mind fog makes the situation sound like a brief inconvenience and deprives sufferers of the legitimacy that extra medicalized language like cognitive impairment would bestow. However Aparna Nair, a historian of incapacity on the College of Oklahoma, famous that incapacity communities have used the time period for many years, and there are a lot of different causes behind mind fog’s dismissal past terminology. (A surfeit of syllables didn’t cease fibromyalgia and myalgic encephalomyelitis from being trivialized.)

For instance, Hellmuth famous that in her subject of cognitive neurology, “nearly all of the infrastructure and instructing” facilities on degenerative illnesses like Alzheimer’s, during which rogue proteins afflict aged brains. Few researchers know that viruses could cause cognitive issues in youthful folks, so few research their results. “In consequence, nobody learns about it in medical college,” Hellmuth mentioned. And since “there’s not quite a lot of humility in medication, folks find yourself blaming sufferers as a substitute of searching for solutions,” she mentioned.

Individuals with mind fog additionally excel at hiding it: Not one of the long-haulers I’ve interviewed sounded cognitively impaired. However at occasions when her speech is clearly sluggish, “no person besides my husband and mom see me,” Robertson mentioned. The stigma that long-haulers expertise additionally motivates them to current as regular in social conditions or physician appointments, which compounds the mistaken sense that they’re much less impaired than they declare—and may be debilitatingly draining. “They’ll do what’s requested of them if you’re testing them, and your outcomes will say they had been regular,” David Putrino, who leads a long-COVID rehabilitation clinic at Mount Sinai, instructed me. “It’s provided that you verify in on them two days later that you just’ll see you’ve wrecked them for per week.”

“We additionally don’t have the fitting instruments for measuring mind fog,” Putrino mentioned. Docs usually use the Montreal Cognitive Evaluation, which was designed to uncover excessive psychological issues in aged folks with dementia, and “isn’t validated for anybody below age 55,” Hellmuth instructed me. Even an individual with extreme mind fog can ace it. Extra subtle exams exist, however they nonetheless examine folks with the inhabitants common slightly than their earlier baseline. “A high-functioning particular person with a decline of their talents who falls throughout the regular vary is instructed they don’t have an issue,” Hellmuth mentioned.

This sample exists for a lot of long-COVID signs: Docs order inappropriate or overly simplistic exams, whose unfavourable outcomes are used to discredit sufferers’ real signs. It doesn’t assist that mind fog (and lengthy COVID extra typically) disproportionately impacts ladies, who’ve a protracted historical past of being labeled as emotional or hysterical by the medical institution. However each affected person with mind fog “tells me the very same story of executive-function signs,” Hellmuth mentioned. “If folks had been making this up, the scientific narrative wouldn’t be the identical.”


Earlier this yr, a workforce of British researchers rendered the invisible nature of mind fog within the stark black-and-white imagery of MRI scans. Gwenaëlle Douaud on the College of Oxford and her colleagues analyzed information from the UK Biobank research, which had usually scanned the brains of a whole bunch of volunteers for years previous to the pandemic. When a few of these volunteers caught COVID, the workforce might examine their after scans to the earlier than ones. They discovered that even delicate infections can barely shrink the mind and scale back the thickness of its neuron-rich grey matter. At their worst, these adjustments had been akin to a decade of ageing. They had been particularly pronounced in areas such because the parahippocampal gyrus, which is necessary for encoding and retrieving recollections, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which is necessary for govt perform. They had been nonetheless obvious in individuals who hadn’t been hospitalized. They usually had been accompanied by cognitive issues.

Though SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID, can enter and infect the central nervous system, it doesn’t accomplish that effectively, persistently, or steadily, Michelle Monje, a neuro-oncologist at Stanford, instructed me. As a substitute, she thinks that usually the virus harms the mind with out instantly infecting it. She and her colleagues not too long ago confirmed that when mice expertise delicate bouts of COVID, inflammatory chemical compounds can journey from the lungs to the mind, the place they disrupt cells known as microglia. Usually, microglia act as groundskeepers, supporting neurons by pruning pointless connections and cleansing undesirable particles. When infected, their efforts turn into overenthusiastic and harmful. Of their presence, the hippocampus—a area essential for reminiscence—produces fewer contemporary neurons, whereas many current neurons lose their insulating coats, so electrical indicators now course alongside these cells extra slowly. These are the identical adjustments that Monje sees in most cancers sufferers with “chemo fog.” And though she and her workforce did their COVID experiments in mice, they discovered excessive ranges of the identical inflammatory chemical compounds in long-haulers with mind fog.

Monje suspects that neuro-inflammation is “in all probability the most typical method” that COVID outcomes intriggers mind fog, however that there are doubtless many such routes. COVID might presumably set off autoimmune issues during which the immune system mistakenly assaults the nervous system, or reactivate dormant viruses similar to Epstein-Barr virus, which has been linked to circumstances together with ME/CFS and a number of sclerosis. By damaging blood vessels and filling them with small clots, COVID additionally throttles the mind’s blood provide, depriving this most energetically demanding of organs of oxygen and gas. This oxygen shortfall isn’t stark sufficient to kill neurons or ship folks to an ICU, however “the mind isn’t getting what it wants to fireside on all cylinders,” Putrino instructed me. (The extreme oxygen deprivation that forces some folks with COVID into crucial care causes completely different cognitive issues than what most long-haulers expertise.)

None of those explanations is ready in stone, however they’ll collectively make sense of mind fog’s options. A scarcity of oxygen would have an effect on subtle and energy-dependent cognitive duties first, which explains why govt perform and language “are the primary ones to go,” Putrino mentioned. With out insulating coats, neurons work extra slowly, which explains why many long-haulers really feel that their processing pace is shot: “You’re dropping the factor that facilitates quick neural connection between mind areas,” Monje mentioned. These issues may be exacerbated or mitigated by elements similar to sleep and relaxation, which explains why many individuals with mind fog have good days and unhealthy days. And though different respiratory viruses can wreak inflammatory havoc on the mind, SARS-CoV-2 does so extra potently than, say, influenza, which explains each why folks similar to Robertson developed mind fog lengthy earlier than the present pandemic and why the symptom is particularly distinguished amongst COVID long-haulers.

Maybe crucial implication of this rising science is that mind fog is “probably reversible,” Monje mentioned. If the symptom was the work of a persistent mind an infection, or the mass demise of neurons following extreme oxygen hunger, it will be onerous to undo. However neuroinflammation isn’t future. Most cancers researchers, for instance, have developed medication that may calm berserk microglia in mice and restore their cognitive talents; some are being examined in early scientific trials. “I’m hopeful that we’ll discover the identical to be true in COVID,” she mentioned.


Biomedical advances may take years to reach, however long-haulers need assistance with mind fog now. Absent cures, most approaches to remedy are about serving to folks handle their signs. Sounder sleep, wholesome consuming, and different generic way of life adjustments could make the situation extra tolerable. Respiratory and rest methods can assist folks by means of unhealthy flare-ups; speech remedy can assist these with issues discovering phrases. Some over-the-counter drugs similar to antihistamines can ease inflammatory signs, whereas stimulants can increase lagging focus.

“Some folks spontaneously get better again to baseline,” Hellmuth instructed me, “however two and a half years on, quite a lot of sufferers I see aren’t any higher.” And between these extremes lies maybe the most important group of long-haulers—these whose mind fog has improved however not vanished, and who can “preserve a comparatively regular life, however solely after making severe lodging,” Putrino mentioned. Lengthy restoration intervals and a slew of lifehacks make common dwelling attainable, however extra slowly and at larger value.

Kristen Tjaden can learn once more, albeit for brief bursts adopted by lengthy rests, however hasn’t returned to work. Angela Meriquez Vázquez can work however can’t multitask or course of conferences in actual time. Julia Moore Vogel, who helps lead a big biomedical analysis program, can muster sufficient govt perform for her job, however “nearly the whole lot else in my life I’ve minimize out to make room for that,” she instructed me. “I solely depart the home or socialize as soon as per week.” And he or she not often talks about these issues brazenly as a result of “in my subject, your mind is your foreign money,” she mentioned. “I do know my worth in many individuals’s eyes will likely be diminished by figuring out that I’ve these cognitive challenges.”

Sufferers wrestle to make peace with how a lot they’ve modified and the stigma related to it, no matter the place they find yourself. Their desperation to return to regular may be harmful, particularly when mixed with cultural norms round urgent on by means of challenges and post-exertional malaise—extreme crashes during which all signs worsen after even minor bodily or psychological exertion. Many long-haulers attempt to push themselves again to work and as a substitute “push themselves right into a crash,” Robertson instructed me. When she tried to pressure her method to normalcy, she grew to become principally housebound for a yr, needing full-time care. Even now, if she tries to pay attention in the midst of a foul day, “I find yourself with a bodily response of exhaustion and ache, like I’ve run a marathon,” she mentioned.

Put up-exertional malaise is so frequent amongst long-haulers that “train as a remedy is inappropriate for folks with lengthy COVID,” Putrino mentioned. Even brain-training video games—which have questionable worth however are sometimes talked about as potential therapies for mind fog—should be very fastidiously rationed as a result of psychological exertion is bodily exertion. Individuals with ME/CFS realized this lesson the onerous method, and fought onerous to get train remedy, as soon as generally prescribed for the situation, to be faraway from official steerage within the U.S. and U.Ok. They’ve additionally realized the worth of pacing—fastidiously sensing and managing their vitality ranges to keep away from crashes.

Vogel does this with a wearable that tracks her coronary heart fee, sleep, exercise, and stress as a proxy for her vitality ranges; in the event that they really feel low, she forces herself to relaxation—cognitively in addition to bodily. Checking social media or responding to emails don’t rely. In these moments, “it’s important to settle for that you’ve this medical disaster and one of the best factor you are able to do is actually nothing,” she mentioned. When caught in a fog, typically the one possibility is to face nonetheless.

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